Read in this article about prediabetes and diabetes disease, symptoms, types, food…
Diabetes disease is a serious condition in which the body stops producing the hormone insulin or does not use to the extent necessary. Insulin is products in pancreas, organ, located between your stomach and spine. After the decomposition of food into glucose in your stomach. Glucose enters the blood, the pancreas produced insulin wich helps your blood carry glucose to all your body’s cells. Insulin represents the “key” for entry of glucose into cells. When a person have diabetes disease cells can not receive glucose as they should. The vast majority of patients with type 2 diabetes initially had prediabetes as a warning that body gives to us.
Diabetes disease was one of the first diseases described, with an Egyptian manuscript from 1500 BCE mentioning “too great emptying of the urine” Diabetes disease is first mentions in English, in the form diabete, in a medical text written 1425. In 1982 the first biosynthetic human insulin – Humulin – that is identical in chemical structure to human insulin and can be mass produced was approved to market in several countries.
Symptoms of diabetes are frequent urination, strong and constant thirst, and increased appetite. If untreated, patients often suffer of cardiovascular and kidney disease, kidney collapse. Problems with the eyes are very common, including partial or complete loss of vision. Later symptoms are weight loss, problems with sexual activity, itchy skin, wounds are slow heal.
Doctors can determine whether a patient has a normal metabolism, prediabetes or diabetes in one of three different ways – there are three possible tests:
- The A1C test
– at least 6.5% means diabetes
– between 5.7% and 5.99% means prediabetes
– less than 5.7% means normal
- The FPG (fasting plasma glucose) test
– at least 126 mg/dl means diabetes
– between 100 mg/dl and 125.99 mg/dl means prediabetes
– less than 100 mg/dl means normal
An abnormal reading following the FPG means the patient has impaired fasting glucose (IFG)
- The OGTT (oral glucose tolerance test)
– at least 200 mg/dl means diabetes
– between 140 and 199.9 mg/dl means prediabetes
– less than 140 mg/dl means normal
An abnormal reading following the OGTT means the patient has impaired glucose tolerance (IGT)
There are several types of diabetes, type 1, type 2 and diabetes in pregnancy.
Type 1 is the most serious form of diabetes and occurs because cells in the pancreas (beta cells) in a very small quantity of products, or does not produce insulin. It can occur at any age, but most cases are seen at children and youth.
The pancreas of patients with Type 2 diabetes disease produced insulin, but in insufficient quantity, or the body is resistance (immunity) to the hormone insulin. It occurs in all ages, but mostly in adults (over 40 years). The therapy is combined – only diet or diet and oral (drugs in tablets). If this therapy does not show good results, apply to insulin therapy.
The vast majority of patients with type 2 diabetes initially had prediabetes. Their blood glucose levels where higher than normal, but not high enough to merit a diabetes diagnosis. The cells in the body are becoming resistant to insulin.
Studies have indicated that even at the prediabetes stage, some damage to the circulatory system and the heart may already have occurred.
Prediabetes can be an opportunity for you to improve your health. Progression from prediabetes to type 2 diabetes isn’t inevitable.
With healthy lifestyle changes — such as eating healthy foods, including physical activity in your daily routine and maintaining a healthy weight — you may be able to bring your blood sugar level back to normal.
Diabetes disease in pregnancy
In pregnancy can happen hormonal changes, improper insulin production , resulting increased levels of glucose in the blood. Women at risk are older than 25 years and wich were overweight before pregnancy, especially those with a genetic predisposition of developing the disease. Usually sugar levels stabilize after childbirth. About 20–50% of affected women develop type 2 diabetes later in life.
Effects of diabetes disease on the body:
- skin on your feet to dry and crack
- damage to the nerves, which can affect your perception of heat, cold and pain
- diseases of the teeth
- the leading cause of blindness in adults
- heart disease, which can lead to a heart attack
Diabetes disease spreads like no other disease on world, it is estimated that about 700 million people suffering from this disease. Diabetes is a disease of the modern lifestyles. Some research suggests that half of children wich are born after 2000. will suffering from diabetes in their lives. Drinking just one can of (non-diet) soda per day can raise our risk of developing type 2 diabetes by 22%, researchers from Imperial College London reported in the journal Diabetologia.
To reduce the risk of getting the diabetes disease:
- exercise regularly, walking, swimming…
- remove foods wich are rich with sugar and fats
- stop smoking, research has shown that by quitting smoking your sugar in blood stabilizes
- reduce stress
- eat fruits and vegetables (grapefruit, carrots, walnuts)
Research suggests that the grapefruit is super foods in the fight against diabetes. Grapefruit could help in the prevention and fight diabetes. The secret of its strength lies in naringenin, an antioxidant that gives the fruit a bitter taste.
The results of research led by Patrice Carter at the University of Leicester showed that one and a half portion of green leafy vegetables (e.g., spinach) every day reduces the risk of diabetes by 14 percent.
Diet for diabetics
Good planning meals and proper nutrition are the easiest and most natural way to control “true” level of sugar in the blood. With proper nutrition you can fix your diabetes disease type 2 almost again in normal state of body.
Of the total energy intake carbohydrates should make up 50-60%, fat 30%, protein 20%.
It is recommended (for the healthy and the sick) to be consumed for:
- breakfast: 20-25%
- lunch: 30-35%
- dinner: 0-25%
- snacks around 10%
- evening snack before bedtime: about 5%
- eat more cooked than fried
- the number of meals to be 5-6, it is best that they are always at the same time
- avoid adding fat and strong spice
Diabetics should avoid honey, especially one that is not natural. If you choose to eat it anyway choose bright, because they contain more fructose from glucose.
In one week can eat two chicken eggs, boiled, in soups, moussaka, pies. You should not eat fried eggs.
Coffee and tea c an be used moderately unsweetened or sweetened with artificial sweeteners. It is desirable to drink lemon juice, tomato juice, orange juice and grapefruit. (no sugar) Mineral water is perhaps the most appropriate drink.
Not desirable for diabetics because it has a lot of calories.
If consumed, it should be sure to take with food, immediately before or after a meal. Iin diabetics who are treated with tablets or insulin may cause long-term and dangerous hypoglycemia!
For diabetics are best walking, jogging, cycling, swimming. For start need to exercise three times a week for half an hour. Avoid heavy exercise if you have diabetes disease.
Diabetics do not have to give up tasty food, they just need to adjust their food.
Here you can find some healthy desserts.
Every diabetic should consult with your doctor to determine which is the best diet for him, here are presented general guidelines.
Global symbol for diabetes disease is blue circle.
- editor, Leonid Poretsky, (2009). Principles of diabetes mellitus (2nd ed.). New York: Springer. p. 3.ISBN 978-0-387-09840-1.